شناخت فقدان‌های تجربه‌شده در تاریخچه‌ی زندگی جوانان ساکن تهران: یک پژوهش پدیدارشناختی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روان شناسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

2 دانشیار گروه روان شناسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

3 دانشیار گروه سنحش و اندازه گیری دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

چکیده

فقدان، اگرچه تجربه‌ای مشترک میان انسان‌هاست، تعریف و گستره‌ی آن به این واسطه که افراد مختلف برداشت‌های گوناگونی از آن دارند کماکان چالشی پیش روی پژوهش‌گران و درمان‌گرانی است که با این پدیده روبرو می‌شوند. در این مطالعه، که به شیوه‌ای کیفی و پدیدارشناختی، با نمونه‌گیری هدفمند و به کمک گروه‌های کانونی و مصاحبه‌ی ژرف‌نگر انجام گرفت، در مجموع تجربیات 13 نفر به صورت گروهی و 8 نفر به صورت انفرادی در خصوص تعریف‌شان از چیستی فقدان و فقدان‌هایی که در طول زندگی‌شان تجربه کرده‌اند اخذ و آوا‌نویسی و بر اساس روش تحلیل پدیدارشناسی تفسیری تحلیل شد. نتایج به دست‌آمده نشان داد که تعریف جوانان از فقدان را می‌توان در سه گونه‌ی کلی تعریف فقدان برمبنای از دست دادن، برمبنای پیامدهای هیجانی و همچنین بر مبنای نداشتن‌ شیء مطلوب دسته‌بندی نمود. همچنین گستره‌ای از تجارب فقدان‌های فردی و ارتباطی شامل فوت افراد نزدیک، فقدان‌های خانوادگی، عاشقانه یا دوستانه، اقتصادی- اجتماعی، جسمانی و نهایتاً فقدان‌های مرتبط با مفاهیم ذهنی شناسایی شد. در نهایت مقایسه‌ای با تحقیقات گذشته نشان داد که فقدان‌ها دامنه‌ی وسیع‌تری از آنچه که تا کنون شناسایی شده بود را در بر گرفته و تا حد زیادی وابسته به زیست‌جهان و فرهنگ افراد مورد بررسی هستند. در نتیجه ضروری به نظر می رسد که تحقیقات آتی واکنش به فقدان های مختف فردی و اجتماعی را از حیث شباهتشان به واکنش های متداول در سوگ مورد بررسی قرار دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on Experienced losses in the life story of young people living in Tehran: a phenomenological study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mani Rafii 1
  • hosein skandari 2
  • ahmad borjali 2
  • noorali farokhi 3
1 department of psychology, allameh tabataba'i university, tehran, iran
2 department of psychology, allameh Tabataba'i university, tehran, iran
3 department of psychology, allameh tabatab'i university, tehran, iran
چکیده [English]

Although loss is a common shared experience among human beings, the broad variety of loss and different meaning people give it, makes its definition a challenging problem for researchers and psychotherapists who work with this phenomenon. In the present study, based on a qualitative and phenomenological approach, the definition and meanings of loss and the variety of experienced losses were examined in a sample of young people who live in Tehran. The sample consisted of 13 people who attended two focused groups and 8 people who were deep-interviewed individually. All sessions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using Interpretive phenomenological analysis. Results revealed that young people’s definition of loss could be categorized in three major groups: losing something and/or someone that we had, emotional consequences of loss and losing the desired object. In addition, a variety of personal and interpersonal loss experiences such as death of a close person, family, romantic or friendship losses, economical losses, health-related losses and losses regarding to mental concepts were identified. Compared to the previous literature, the present study shows that losses have an even wider range and are strongly related to the culture and life experiences of the people who narrate them. The implications of these results has been discussed and suggestions for further research has been provided.
it is essential that future research investigate the response to individual and social loss in terms of their similarity to the common reactions in grief.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Phenomenology
  • Experience of Loss
  • grief
  • young adults
  • Lived experience
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